Saturn!!!!!

Luke Crouch, Jordan van Rees andGillespie Dougall

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Click on all pictures for more information and links!!!!


Introduction



  • Saturn appears pale yellow to the naked to the human eye. Although it never appears external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSYXftu3UO-atB2ry7K5OfDCt-Ye5DNR-I84KGVK08bAsi0lNJp7IKRYbNmas bright as the other naked eye planets, it is nonetheless obvious when its position is known. At its brightest, Saturn outshines all of the stars except Sirius and Canopus.

  • Saturn's famous ring system can be seen in a small telescope; high magnification binoculars will just reveal its elliptical shape when the rings are open to view. The rings contribute a great deal to its brightness, and in fact, from the vantage point of the Earth, they are not always on view. About every 15 years, the rings are edgewise-on to the Earth's line-of-sight, at which times they are only seen as a thin line in telescopes - or not at all - and as a result the planet appears much dimmer in the sky.

  • This diagram of Saturn's orbit, includes an animation of its changing ring aspects from 1993 to 2020.Small telescopes will show Titan easily, along with several more of Saturn's moons, most notably Rhea, Tethys ,Dione and Enceladus .The magnitude of Iapetus varies because its hemispheres differ greatly in brightness, the moon presenting opposing sides to the Earth when furthest east or west of the planet; it is always brighter when at western elongation than at eastern elongation.Of the brighter telescopic moons, Iapetus is the outermost, appearing up to thirteen ring-diameters away from the planet's centre.It has at least 31 moons. These include Titan, Hyperion, Mimas, Enceladus, Rhea, and Phoebe.



FActs on thE Run
* Diameter: 120,660 km. It is about 10 times larger than our Earth
NASA photos - free space and planets photos
NASA photos - free space and planets photos
* Temperature: –178°C

* Distance from Earth: At its closest, Saturn is 1190.4 million km
* Atmosphere:Hydrogen and helium
* Surface: consists of liquid and gas.
* Rotation of its axis: 10 hours, 40 min, 24 sec
* Rotation around the Sun: 29.5 Earth years

* It takes 1 hour and 20 minutes for sunlight to reach Saturn

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Fast Facts* Saturn's rings are made of billions of ice particles.
  • Its surface consists of liquid and gas.


Overview

Titan is the largest moon , and is the second-largest in our solar system (Jupiter's Ganymede is largest). The other satellites have icy surfaces and many craters. Mimas has one crater that spans one quarter of it's diameter. Iapetus is another which is an enigma. It's surface appears to be divided into two sections. Most of the moons, which are small, were probably captured asteroids, and did not form with Saturn.
Descriptions
Pan is the closest satellite to Saturn. That is about all that we know about it.
Next comes Atlas. Atlas serves a very important function: Its orbit is at the edge of Saturn's A-ring, and Atlas keeps the A-ring in place, so the particles cannot go beyond its orbit.
Next out are Prometheus (right) and Pandora. Prometheus and Pandora serve a joint purpose which is not unlike Atlas: Prometheus guards the inside of the F-ring, while Pandora guards the outside.

Next come Epimetheus (left) and Janus (right). Scientists think that these two moons were once part of a single moon that was later blasted apart. This claim is supported by the fact that their orbits are within thirty miles of each other.
Next comes Mimas. This is a unique moon because it has a huge crater that covers fully one quarter of its entire surface.
Next out are Enceladus, Tethys, Telesto, Calypso, Helene, Dione, and Rhea (right). Dione looks very much like our moon, except that it contains ice. Tethys, Telesto, and Calypso all share the same orbit.
Titan (left) is the second-largest moon in the solar system. It is also one of the only three that have an atmosphere (Jupiter's Io and Neptune's Triton are the other two). Out of the other two, Titan certainly has the thickest. In fact, its clouds are so thick that the moon is like Venus; it is impossible to see the ground. Therefore, we know very little about this moon, except it has a thick orange cloud-cover, and an atmosphere thicker than Earth's.
The next three moons are Hyperion, Iapetus, and Phoebe. Hyperion looks like a hamburger, and has a crater that covers one third of its bottom side. Iapetus has one side that reflects light, but the other side is covered in a pitch-dark material.
The other 13 moons all orbit outside of Iapetus' orbit, but a few are inside of Phoebe's. They were discovered in 2000 by a team of astronomers who were examining old photographs of Saturn and the area around Saturn. They are tiny, and some orbit retrograde, meaning that they orbit in the direction opposite the planet's spin - an almost certain indication that they are captured asteroids rather than being native to the system. They are currently being called S/2000 S#, with the # ranging from 1 to 12, and S/2003 S1. They will eventually be given names by the International Astronomical Union, the only official naming group.
Planetary Photojournal — NASA Planet Photos
Planetary Photojournal — NASA Planet Photos

Facts on Saturn

  • Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and is the second largest in the solar system with an equatorial diameter of 119,300 kilometers (74,130 miles). Much of what is known about the planet is due to the Voyager explorations in 1980-81. Saturn is visibly flattened at the poles, a result of the very fast rotation of the planet on its axis. Its day is 10 hours, 39 minutes long, and it takes 29.5 Earth years to revolve about the Sun. The atmosphere is primarily composed of hydrogen with small amounts of helium and methane. Saturn is the only planet less dense than water (about 30 percent less). In the unlikely event that a large enough ocean could be found, Saturn would float in it. Saturn's hazy yellow hue is marked by broad atmospheric banding similar to, but fainter than, that found on Jupiter.+
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Wind!

  • The wind blows at high speeds on Saturn. Near the equator of Saturn, it reaches velocities of 500 meters a second (1,100 miles an hour). The wind blows mostly in an easterly direction. The strongest winds are found near the equator.

Saturns Rings!

  • Saturn's ring system makes the planet one of the most beautiful objects in the solar system. The rings are split into a number of different parts, which include the bright A and B rings and a fainter C ring. The ring system has various gaps. The most notable gap is the Cassini Division, which separates the A and B rings.

  • Giovanni Cassini discovered this division in 1675. The Encke Division, which splits the A Ring, is named after Johann Encke, who discovered it in 1837. Space probes have shown that the main rings are really made up of a large number of narrow ringlets.

  • The origin of the rings is obscure. It is thought that the rings may have been formed from larger moons that were shattered by impacts of comets and meteoroids. The ring composition is not known for certain, but the rings do show a significant amount of water. They may be composed of icebergs and/or snowballs from a few centimeters to a few meters in size.

  • Much of the elaborate structure of some of the rings is due to the gravitational effects of nearby satellites. This phenomenon is demonstrated by the relationship between the F-ring and two small moons that shepard the ring material.

Gravity!

  • Saturns gravity is hard to determin because the planet is made of gas and liquid. but if you were to find out what it is then it would be 2.5 times stronger than earths gravity.

Reference list


nineplanets.org/saturn.html